B) failing to correct for unconscious interviewer bias. Response bias is a type of bias which influences a person's response away from facts and reality. Self-selection bias is a subcategory of selection bias. A working description of cultural bias in testing for the purpose of this article involves the notions of (a) significantly different results for definable subgroups from apparently similar ability levels and (b) issues with the fair and equitable interpretation and use of test results. Because the selection of participants isn’t random, as the result, the validity of the studies may be undermined. To avoid this, researchers must remember that their overarching aim is to learn from users. There may have been method bias, due to the administration of the test. A microassault is a “verbal or nonverbal attack meant to hurt the intended victim through name-calling, avoidant behavior, or purposeful discriminatory actions.” Example: Students wear Confederate flag clothing. These influences may include, among others, characteristics of the test setting, the instructions, and the examiners themselves. Selection Bias ☹️. A survey is a very good example of such a study, and is certainly prone to response biases. If you let the subjects of your analyses select themselves, that means that less proactive people will be excluded. In discussing test fairness, statistical bias may refer to construct under-representation or construct-irrelevant components of test scores that differentially affect the performance of different groups of test takers. The bigger issue is that self-selection is a specific behaviour – that may correlate with other specific behaviours – so this sample does not represent the entire population. Confirmation bias can be introduced when we’re designing tests. This bias occurs when the researcher decides which type individuals or the number of individuals to participate in the study. Patricia Rosser did a study in the early ’90s regarding the SATs and women. This bias is usually seen in predictive standardized testing taken during the high school and college years. A) using a sample that may not be representative of all students. Gathering samples from volunteers may not be sufficient as it does not prevent self-selection bias. This bias is mostly evident in studies interested in collecting participants' self-report, mostly employing a questionnaire format. D) relying on any sample instead of surveying every student. A/B Testing with different set of variants to avoid Anchoring Bias results. And I know there was item bias, because the test uses colloquial phrases, such as 'bury the hatchet,' within the items. Jensen's 1980 term situational bias refers to “influences in the test situation, but independent of the test itself, that may bias test scores” (p. 377). 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